The role of women’s education in combating gender-based violence


March 8th is celebrated as “International Women’s Day” across the Globe to commemorate the memory of the female textile workers of New York who marched on the streets of New York to demand equal wages and better working conditions on March 8th, 1857. It was the first strike of its kind organized by the women of the working class. Since then, women have been marching for their rights every year to demand equal rights and dignity. In Pakistan, the role of women in society is often limited due to gender biases and that often leads to a plethora of other problems. It is often suggested that Women’s education can play a decisive role in combating Gender-Based violence and can minimize the discrimination that women face in any society.

Combating Gender-Based Violence and Discrimination

Gender-based violence remains a pervasive issue that affects millions of women and girls worldwide. It is a form of violence that is rooted in unequal power relations between men and women, and it can take many forms, including physical, sexual, psychological, and economic violence. While efforts to combat gender-based violence have been ongoing for decades, there is growing evidence that women’s education can play an important role in combating gender-based violence.

In Pakistan, however, women’s education is often limited by cultural, economic, and political factors. According to UNICEF, only 45% of women in Pakistan are literate, and many women are denied access to education due to poverty, early marriage, and societal norms that restrict their mobility and opportunities. To combat gender-based violence, it is essential to address these structural barriers and invest in women’s education.

Investing in girls’ education in Pakistan can have multiple benefits in the long run. Studies show that educated women are more likely to be economically independent, which can give them the power to leave abusive relationships or resist forced marriages. They are also more likely to participate in decision-making at the household and community level, which can help to challenge traditional gender norms that contribute to gender-based violence. Furthermore, educated women are more likely to have better health outcomes, and they can pass on their knowledge and skills to their children, leading to intergenerational benefits.

To combating gender-based violence through women’s education, it is necessary to take a comprehensive and multi-faceted approach. Some of the key strategies that can be employed include:

Providing Accessible Education:

One of the primary reasons why women and girls are denied education in Pakistan is because of a lack of accessibility. To address this issue, the government and other stakeholders must invest in creating more schools and training teachers, especially in rural areas. Schools should be equipped with safe and secure facilities, transportation, and sanitation facilities. Additionally, there should be provisions for free education, scholarships, and financial incentives to encourage families to send their girls to school.

Educating Boys and Men:

While girls’ education is crucial, it is equally essential to educate boys and men on the harms of gender-based violence. Schools and other educational institutions should incorporate education on gender equality, healthy relationships, and consent into their curriculum. Moreover, communities should be engaged in campaigns to raise awareness about gender-based violence and its impacts on women’s lives.

Providing Support Services:

Women and girls who experience gender-based violence often face significant barriers to accessing support services. It is necessary to provide safe and confidential spaces for women and girls to report incidents of violence and seek support. Additionally, there should be provisions for legal aid, counseling, and medical care.

Advocating for Legal and Policy Changes:

To address gender-based violence, there must be adequate laws and policies in place that protect women’s rights. Pakistan has laws in place that criminalize violence against women, including the Protection of Women Against Violence Act, but the implementation of these laws is often weak. Advocacy and policy changes are necessary to ensure that these laws are implemented effectively and that women can access justice.


In conclusion, women’s education is a crucial strategy in combating gender-based violence in Pakistan. By investing in girls’ education, addressing structural barriers to education, and providing support services, Pakistan can empower women to resist violence, challenge traditional gender norms, and contribute to the country’s development.

Related: PU holds conference on gender based violence


How childhood trauma can impact the emotional well-being

There is an ample amount of data available to suggest that children with severe childhood traumas often have more chances to fall into destructive behaviors, like addiction, self-harm, substance abuse, etc. There can be different forms of childhood traumas that children may encounter during their formative years. Loss of a parent, absence of a parent, loss of a sibling, physical or emotional abuse, or in extreme cases, sexual abuse. Childhood trauma is a serious issue that can have long-lasting effects on an individual’s emotional well-being. Gabor Mate, a renowned Canadian physician, has extensively studied the impact of childhood trauma on mental health. According to him, childhood trauma can have a profound effect on an individual’s emotional development, leading to a range of mental health problems in adulthood.

Mate argues that childhood trauma can impact the emotional well-being of an adult in several ways. Firstly, it can lead to the development of negative self-beliefs, such as a belief that they are unlovable or unworthy of affection. This can lead to feelings of shame, guilt, and low self-esteem, which can manifest in a range of mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety.

Secondly, childhood trauma can lead to the development of maladaptive coping strategies. This may include substance abuse, self-harm, and other destructive behaviors, which are used as a means of numbing emotional pain or coping with feelings of distress. These coping mechanisms can become ingrained in an individual’s psyche, making it difficult to break free from them and leading to a cycle of addiction and emotional distress.

Thirdly, childhood trauma can impact an individual’s ability to form healthy relationships. Mate argues that early experiences of neglect, abandonment, or abuse can make it difficult for an individual to trust others and form secure attachments. This can lead to a range of relationship problems, including difficulty with intimacy, fear of abandonment, and a tendency to repeat dysfunctional patterns of behavior.

Fourthly, childhood trauma can impact an individual’s ability to regulate their emotions. Mate suggests that childhood trauma can lead to a dysregulation of the stress response system, resulting in a chronic state of hypervigilance and heightened emotional reactivity. This can make it difficult for individuals to regulate their emotions and respond appropriately to stressors, leading to a range of mental health problems such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Finally, childhood trauma can impact an individual’s ability to connect with their authentic selves. According to Mate, childhood trauma can result in a disconnection from one’s emotions and a sense of disconnection from one’s true self. This can result in a sense of emptiness, and a feeling of being disconnected from oneself and others.

Healing from Childhood Trauma: Meeting with your Authentic Self

Childhood trauma is a significant and widespread issue that can have long-lasting effects on an individual’s mental health and physical well-being. It can manifest in various forms, including physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, neglect, abandonment, or growing up in a dysfunctional family environment. Coping with the aftermath of trauma can be challenging, but it is possible to heal with the help of professionals.

Dr Nicole LePera, a licensed clinical psychologist, and Dr Gabor Mate, a physician specializing in addiction, stress, and childhood trauma, have both dedicated their careers to helping individuals heal from childhood trauma. Their approaches share several similarities, but they also have some unique perspectives and techniques.

Here are some key insights from Dr LePera and Dr Mate on how to heal from childhood trauma:

Recognize the effects of trauma on your mind and body

One of the first steps to healing from childhood trauma is recognizing how it has affected you. Dr Mate emphasizes that childhood trauma can create changes in the brain and the body that can lead to physical and mental health issues later in life. For example, trauma can activate the body’s stress response system, leading to chronic inflammation, weakened immunity, and increased risk of developing chronic illnesses.

Dr LePera notes that trauma can also impact the way you think and feel, leading to negative self-talk, low self-esteem, and emotional dysregulation. Recognizing these effects is an essential first step towards healing.

Develop self-awareness

Developing self-awareness is a critical component of healing from childhood trauma. According to Dr. LePera, self-awareness involves understanding your thoughts, emotions, and behaviors and how they relate to your past experiences. It requires a willingness to look inward and examine your patterns of behavior and beliefs.

Dr Mate emphasizes that self-awareness also involves understanding your coping mechanisms and how they may be linked to your childhood trauma. For example, some people may turn to drugs or alcohol to cope with the pain, while others may engage in self-harm or other destructive behaviors.

Practice self-compassion

Practicing self-compassion is another key aspect of healing from childhood trauma. According to Dr LePera, self-compassion involves treating yourself with kindness, understanding, and forgiveness. It means acknowledging that the trauma you experienced was not your fault and that you are worthy of love and care. Dr Mate notes that self-compassion also involves accepting your emotions and giving yourself permission to feel them. For example, if you feel angry or sad about your past experiences, it is essential to allow yourself to experience these emotions rather than pushing them away.

Build a supportive community

Building a supportive community is an essential part of healing from childhood trauma. Dr LePera emphasizes that having a supportive network of friends and family can help you feel less isolated and provide you with the emotional support you need. Dr Mate notes that building a community can also involve finding a therapist or support group that specializes in working with individuals who have experienced childhood trauma. These professionals can provide you with the tools and resources you need to heal and thrive.

Engage in self-care practices

Engaging in self-care practices is another critical component of healing from childhood trauma. Dr LePera emphasizes that self-care involves engaging in activities that nourish your mind, body, and soul. This can include things like exercise, meditation, journaling, or spending time in nature. Dr Mate notes that self-care also involves taking care of your physical health by eating a healthy diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding drugs and alcohol. These practices can help reduce inflammation, improve immune function, and promote overall well-being.

Related: The Impact of Bullying on Students’ Wellbeing


Role of Madrassas in the Educational Development of Pakistan

The history of the institutions of religious education (known as Madrassah) goes as back as the pre-modern era. They were initially established to preserve and disseminate Islamic knowledge, both the Quran and the sayings of the Holy Prophet. But the institution in and of itself was then that in earlier traditional societies and their role was not only confined to giving religious education to the masses. The confinement of Madrassas to only religious education is rather a modern phenomenon as in the pre-renaissance world no such binary of “religious and non-religious” existed because religion was predominantly used to determine and rule people’s lives overall. But with the advent of secularism, the role of religion was restricted to just an individual’s life and its public display was frowned upon, hence we see the role of the Church got limited in the realms of the state’s affairs. All of this was happening in the west while colonialism was at its very peak and the colonizers found them in a very peculiar position as they witness, that unlike in the west, people in the East, especially in the sub-continent where there weren’t any refined boundaries between religious and modern education unlike in the west. That’s when the Britishers decided to introduce a separate and parallel system of education, wholly focusing on modern needs and wants. New educational institutions were built and the role of religious seminaries was just limited to providing religious education. And the same model was opted for after the partition. And since the partition, the role of Madrassas in the educational development of Pakistan is highly debated.

Role of Madrassas in the Educational Development

Madrassas, or Islamic seminaries, have a long history in Pakistan and have played a significant role in shaping the country’s religious and cultural landscape. However, the role of Madrassas in the educational development of Pakistan has been a subject of debate and controversy.

On one hand, some argue that madrassas have provided access to education for millions of students, particularly in rural areas where government schools are often scarce. These schools provide free education, room, and board, and often attract low-income families who cannot afford the fees charged by private schools.

Moreover, madrassas have also played a crucial role in promoting Islamic education and preserving the country’s cultural and religious traditions. Many students attend madrassas to learn the Quran and the principles of Islam, and these institutions have helped produce generations of Islamic scholars and leaders.

However, critics argue that madrassas have contributed to the spread of religious extremism and intolerance in Pakistan. Some madrassas have been accused of promoting a narrow and intolerant version of Islam that does not tolerate other religions or sects. Additionally, some of these schools have been linked to terrorism and militancy, and have been accused of providing a breeding ground for radicalized youth.

Despite these concerns, madrassas remain an integral part of Pakistan’s education system. According to some estimates, there are over 30,000 madrassas in the country, with an estimated two million students enrolled. Many of these institutions receive funding from religious organizations and wealthy donors, while others rely on government support.

The government has also attempted to regulate the madrassa system to address some of the concerns around religious extremism and terrorism. In 2002, the government introduced the Madrassah Education Board to register and monitor the activities of madrassas across the country. The board was later renamed the Wafaqul Madaris Al-Arabia, and is now the largest regulatory body for madrassas in Pakistan.

However, critics argue that the regulatory framework is inadequate and has not been effective in addressing the concerns around religious extremism and terrorism. Many madrassas continue to operate outside the purview of government regulation, and there are concerns about the quality of education and the curriculum taught in these schools.

Moreover, the lack of government support for the madrassa system has also been a major issue. While the government has invested heavily in the public education system, with a focus on secular subjects, it has not provided similar support for Islamic education. As a result, many madrassas lack the resources and facilities needed to provide quality education.

There have been some efforts to address these issues in recent years. The government has introduced reforms to the madrassa system, including a focus on teaching modern subjects such as science, math, and English. Some madrassas have also started to offer vocational training programs to help students acquire practical skills and improve their employability.

Additionally, there have been efforts to promote greater collaboration between madrassas and mainstream educational institutions. In 2019, the government launched the “Madrassah Connect” program, which aims to connect madrassas with public and private schools to promote the exchange of ideas and resources.


In conclusion, while the role of madrassas in the educational development of Pakistan is very significant, their role has been a subject of controversy and debate. While these institutions have provided access to education for millions of students and have helped preserve the country’s cultural and religious traditions, concerns around religious extremism and terrorism have also been raised. The government’s attempts to regulate and reform the madrassa system have been met with mixed success, and there is a need for greater investment and support for Islamic education in the country.

Related: UO vying to create harmony between Madrasa & university students

Impact of cultural and linguistic diversity on education in Pakistan


The culture and linguistic diversity of Pakistan are unmatched and often understated. We mention “Pakistan” as one entity and assume that the majority of the population of the country speaks only one language (Urdu) and follows one unified “Pakistani Culture”. The reality on the ground is starkly different. There is no such thing as a unified “Pakistani Culture”, rather it is a blend of different strands of culture, Sindhi, Punjabi, Saraki, Pashtun, Hazara, and Urdu Speaking, and even between them, there are sub-groups and further divisions. The same goes for the language too, on paper, the official language of the country is Urdu, but hardly 20% of the population speaks it, and that too in the mainland. People in the peripheries and in the rural areas prefer to communicate only in their regional language and a rough estimate would suggest that the number of local languages spoken in Pakistan is more than 10, and every language has a different accent and lexicon. And we can observe the implications of such diversity in the country’s economic and overall progress, and the field of education is no exception. The impact of cultural and linguistic diversity in Pakistan is mostly overlooked while designing any policy framework concerning education and or even while proposing changes in the curriculum. It is pertinent to keep these impacts in my mind while proposing any long-term policy related to education.

Impact of Cultural and Linguistic Diversity on Education

The impact of cultural and linguistic diversity on education in Pakistan can be seen in several ways. Firstly, the diversity of languages spoken in Pakistan can make it difficult for children to learn in school. Many children come from homes where their mother tongue is not Urdu, which is the official language of instruction in most schools. This can create a language barrier that makes it hard for children to understand what is being taught in class.

To address this issue, some schools have started offering bilingual education, where children are taught in both their mother tongue and Urdu. However, this approach is not yet widespread and there is still a need for more resources and support to ensure that all children can access education in a language that they understand.

Another impact of cultural and linguistic diversity on education in Pakistan is the challenge of creating a sense of national identity. Pakistan is a country with a diverse range of ethnic and linguistic groups, which can sometimes lead to tensions between different communities. In some cases, this can spill over into the education system, with students from different communities feeling excluded or marginalized.

To address this issue, it is important for schools to promote a sense of national identity that is inclusive of all communities. This can be done through initiatives such as celebrating cultural festivals from different parts of Pakistan, promoting interfaith dialogue, and encouraging students to learn about the history and traditions of different communities.

How cultural and linguistic diversity of Pakistan can be used to strengthen the education sector?

The cultural and linguistic diversity in Pakistan presents a unique opportunity to strengthen the education sector by incorporating a culturally and linguistically responsive approach.

One way to leverage this diversity is by developing curricula that incorporate the diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds of students. This can help students feel more connected to their cultural identity and foster a sense of pride in their heritage. Additionally, teaching in a student’s native language has been shown to improve academic outcomes, as students are better able to comprehend and engage with the material.

Incorporating cultural and linguistic diversity into teacher training programs can also have a positive impact on the education sector. Teachers who are trained to work with culturally and linguistically diverse students are better equipped to create inclusive learning environments that meet the needs of all students.

Furthermore, promoting cultural exchange programs and opportunities for students to learn about different cultures can also strengthen the education sector in Pakistan. These programs can broaden students’ perspectives, promote empathy and understanding, and foster a more inclusive and tolerant society.

It is also important to recognize and celebrate the contributions of different cultural and linguistic groups in Pakistan. By highlighting the achievements and successes of diverse communities, students can feel a sense of pride in their heritage and develop a greater appreciation for the diversity of Pakistan.

Finally, incorporating technology into the education sector can also help to promote cultural and linguistic diversity. Digital tools such as language learning apps and online resources can provide students with access to materials in their native language, as well as opportunities to learn about different cultures.

In conclusion, the cultural and linguistic diversity of Pakistan presents a unique opportunity to strengthen the education sector. By incorporating a culturally and linguistically responsive approach, promoting cultural exchange programs, recognizing and celebrating diverse communities, and incorporating technology into education, Pakistan can create a more inclusive and equitable education system that meets the needs of all students.

Related: It’s Time We Take Pride In Our Local Languages


Corruption in the Education Sector: Causes and Impacts

Corruption is regarded as the mother of ills in society and rightly so. Sadly, in Pakistan, there is hardly any institution that is free from this disease and it has been affecting the whole society from bureaucracy to politics to education. But the impact of corruption on education has many dimensions and is multifaceted. Before talking about the effects of corruption on the education system of Pakistan, it is pertinent to trace the reasons and causes that make the environment feasible for corruption to exist.

Reasons for corruption in the education sector in Pakistan

Corruption has been a pervasive problem in Pakistan’s education sector for decades. The phenomenon of corruption in the education sector can be attributed to a range of factors, including political interference, lack of transparency, weak governance structures, inadequate funding, and limited accountability mechanisms. This article aims to provide a detailed analysis of the root causes of corruption in Pakistan’s education sector and its impact on the country’s overall development.

Political Interference:

Political interference is one of the main reasons for corruption in Pakistan’s education sector. Politicians use their power to appoint individuals who are loyal to them to key positions within the education system. This often results in the appointment of unqualified and incompetent individuals who lack the necessary skills and experience to perform their duties effectively. Additionally, politicians often manipulate the allocation of education funds, diverting resources to their own constituencies or personal projects, rather than investing in the development of the education system as a whole.

Lack of Transparency:

Another contributing factor to corruption in Pakistan’s education sector is the lack of transparency in decision-making processes. There is often a lack of public access to information about the allocation and disbursement of education funds, making it easier for corrupt officials to siphon off funds without being detected. Additionally, contracts for the provision of goods and services, such as textbooks or school buildings, are often awarded without any competitive bidding process, making it easier for corrupt officials to award contracts to their preferred suppliers.

Weak Governance Structures:

The weak governance structures in Pakistan’s education sector also contribute to corruption. The system lacks adequate checks and balances, which makes it easier for corrupt officials to engage in fraudulent activities. Additionally, regulatory bodies, such as the Higher Education Commission (HEC) and the Education Boards, lack capacity to effectively monitor and regulate the education sector. This lack of oversight and regulation makes it easier for corrupt officials to engage in corrupt practices with impunity.

Inadequate Funding:

Another factor contributing to corruption in Pakistan’s education sector is inadequate funding. Pakistan spends a meager percentage of its GDP on education, which has resulted in a chronic lack of resources for the sector. This lack of resources has made it difficult for schools and universities to provide quality education to students. As a result, teachers and administrators often resort to corrupt practices to supplement their income, such as accepting bribes or charging illegal fees.

Limited Accountability Mechanisms:

Finally, limited accountability mechanisms in the education sector have also contributed to corruption. There are few consequences for officials who engage in corrupt practices, and the punishments that do exist are often not severe enough to deter corruption. Additionally, there is a lack of whistleblower protection, which discourages individuals from reporting corruption for fear of retaliation.

Impacts of Corruption on the Education Sector

The impacts of corruption in the education sector are far-reaching and have led to a decline in the quality of education, unequal access to education, and a lack of transparency in the allocation of resources. In this article, we will examine the impacts of corruption in the education sector in Pakistan.

One of the most significant impacts of corruption in the education sector is the decline in the quality of education. Corruption has led to the hiring of unqualified teachers, the sale of grades and degrees, and the allocation of resources to schools based on bribery rather than need. As a result, the education system is failing to produce competent graduates who can contribute positively to the economy and society.

Furthermore, corruption has led to unequal access to education, particularly for children from low-income families. In many cases, parents must pay bribes to get their children into schools or to ensure that they receive a quality education. This has created a system where education is only available to those who can afford to pay for it, perpetuating the cycle of poverty and inequality.

Corruption has also led to a lack of transparency in the allocation of resources for the education sector. Funds intended for education are often misused or embezzled, with little accountability or oversight. This has resulted in a shortage of resources for schools, including textbooks, facilities, and qualified teachers. In addition, corruption has resulted in the development of ghost schools, where funding is allocated for schools that do not exist, or schools that exist only on paper.

The impact of corruption in the education sector has also contributed to the radicalization of youth in Pakistan. A lack of access to education, coupled with the prevalence of madrassas that teach extremist ideologies, has led to a generation of young people who are vulnerable to recruitment by extremist groups. This has contributed to the rise of extremism and terrorism in Pakistan.

In addition, corruption has led to a brain drain of qualified professionals from the education sector. Many competent teachers and professors have left Pakistan to pursue opportunities abroad, where they can receive better salaries and working conditions. This has resulted in a shortage of qualified educators, particularly in rural areas, where the situation is particularly dire.

The impact of corruption in the education sector has also contributed to a decline in the international reputation of Pakistan. International organizations and foreign governments are increasingly reluctant to invest in the education sector in Pakistan due to concerns about corruption and the lack of accountability. This has further exacerbated the shortage of resources for education in Pakistan.

To address the issue of corruption in the education sector, it is essential to strengthen accountability and transparency mechanisms. This includes improving oversight and monitoring of education funds, establishing an independent body to investigate corruption in the sector, and creating a system of rewards and punishments for educators based on performance.

In addition, it is crucial to invest in education and to ensure that funds are allocated based on need rather than bribery. This includes increasing funding for education, particularly in rural areas, where the situation is particularly dire, and providing incentives for qualified educators to work in these areas.

Finally, there is a need to address the issue of madrassas, which are often seen as an alternative to the failing public education system. To address this issue, it is essential to reform the public education system to provide access to quality education for all children, regardless of their socioeconomic status. This includes providing incentives for private schools to open in areas where public education is failing, investing in teacher training and curriculum development, and improving the quality of facilities and resources available to students.

In conclusion, corruption in the education sector in Pakistan has had far-reaching impacts on the quality of education, access to education, and the reputation of the country. To address this issue, it is essential to strengthen accountability and transparency mechanisms.

Related: ACE Punjab joins hands with UMT to Fight Corruption


Educational inequality in Pakistan: Causes and Solutions

Of all the challenges Pakistan is facing, from economic crises to Political disability, the challenge of educational inequality is often ignored and overlooked and doesn’t get the attention that it deserves. Pakistan is facing significant challenges in achieving educational equality due to various factors. Some of the main causes of educational inequality in Pakistan are:

  • Economic factors: Poverty is one of the biggest barriers to education in Pakistan. Children from low-income families often lack access to basic necessities like food, shelter, and healthcare, which makes it difficult for them to attend school regularly. Families may also need their children to work to support the household, which further limits their ability to attend school.
  • Gender inequality: In Pakistan, girls face significant barriers to education. They are often discouraged from attending school due to cultural norms that prioritize marriage and household responsibilities over education. Girls also face safety concerns while travelling to and from school, as well as while at school.
  • Inadequate infrastructure: Many schools in Pakistan lack basic infrastructure like safe and clean classrooms, toilets, and drinking water facilities. The lack of infrastructure makes it difficult for students to attend school regularly and affects their ability to learn.
  • Poor quality of education: The quality of education in Pakistan is generally poor, particularly in rural areas. Schools may lack qualified teachers, appropriate teaching materials, and a suitable learning environment. This can affect student learning outcomes and contribute to the high dropout rate.
  • Regional disparities: Education inequality is more pronounced in certain regions of Pakistan, particularly in rural and remote areas. These regions often lack basic infrastructure, qualified teachers, and adequate funding for schools, which makes it difficult for students to attend school regularly and achieve good learning outcomes.
  • Lack of government funding: Pakistan’s education sector is underfunded, with limited investment in improving educational infrastructure, providing teacher training, and promoting access to education for all. The lack of funding limits the government’s ability to improve the education system and reduce educational inequality.

Solutions to Educational inequality in Pakistan

Pakistan is a country where educational equality is still a distant dream for millions of children. According to UNESCO, the country has the second highest number of out-of-school children in the world. The problem is particularly acute for girls, who are often denied the opportunity to go to school due to cultural and societal norms.

To address this issue, Pakistan’s government and civil society must work together to implement a multi-pronged approach. The following are some solutions that can help promote educational equality in the country:

Increase Funding for Education:

Pakistan must increase funding for education to provide better resources, infrastructure, and teacher training. The government must allocate more funds to education, and the private sector must also step in to support the education sector. Investment in education is essential to improve the quality of education and increase access to education.

Improve Quality of Education:

Pakistan must also focus on improving the quality of education provided in schools. This can be done by hiring better teachers, training existing teachers, and providing modern teaching resources. Quality education will not only ensure that children are equipped with the skills they need to succeed in life but also help reduce drop-out rates.

Provide Scholarships and Financial Assistance:

Pakistan must provide scholarships and financial assistance to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. This will help address the financial barriers that prevent many children from accessing education. The government and private sector must work together to provide financial assistance and ensure that children from low-income families have access to education.

Address Gender Inequality:

Pakistan must address gender inequality and promote the education of girls. This can be done by launching campaigns to raise awareness of the importance of education for girls, providing incentives to families who send their daughters to school, and ensuring that schools are safe and welcoming for girls. Providing separate toilets for girls in schools is also crucial to encourage them to attend school.

Develop Vocational Education:

Pakistan must develop vocational education to provide children with the skills they need to find employment. This can be done by working with the private sector to identify the skills required in the workforce and designing courses to meet these requirements. Vocational education will not only provide children with employment opportunities but also help address the issue of unemployment in the country.

Improve Access to Technology:

Pakistan must also improve access to technology in schools. This will help provide children with access to modern teaching resources and help bridge the gap between urban and rural areas. The government and private sector must work together to provide schools with computers, internet access, and other technological resources.

Provide Safe Learning Environments:

Pakistan must ensure that schools provide safe learning environments for children. This can be done by addressing issues such as bullying, violence, and harassment in schools. The government must also ensure that schools are equipped with adequate security measures to prevent incidents of violence and protect children.


In conclusion, promoting educational equality in Pakistan will require a concerted effort from the government, civil society, and the private sector. The solutions outlined above can help provide children with the education they need to succeed in life and contribute to the development of the country. By investing in education, Pakistan can ensure that every child has access to quality education regardless of their socio-economic background or gender.

Related: Education Not Enough To End Income Inequality


QAU to remain close amid clashes between students’ groups

Quaid-e-Azam University (QAU) Islamabad is to remain closed until further notice amid violent clashes between Pashtun and Baloch students groups.

According to Islamabad Police officials, 6 students were injured as a result of these recent clashes, and though ICT Police have vowed to restore the environment of peace in the University, there have not been any arrests reported and University remains closed.

The police official said that students belonging to both groups attacked each other resulting in a massive violent clash.

On the other hand, the notification issued by the registrar’s office of Quaid-e-Azam University states that the University to remain closed until further notice as a result of the “law and order” situation amid violent clashes between two student groups.
It is noteworthy to mention here that the notification doesn’t specifically name the “student groups” involved in the clash that led to the closure of the university but according to University Students, the clash happened between Pashtun and Baluch ethnic Councils.

The news came as a shock for many as QAU is considered to be one of the most prestigious educational institutions in Pakistan. But for those, who have been following the trajectory of violence by the ethnic councils, this was hardly news.

After the clashes, both Baluch and Pashtun student groups took to Twitter and started portraying the other group as the perpetrator. But for the common students of QAU, all these ethnic councils are equally responsible for this culture of violence that has sadly become a norm in QAU.

Speaking to Academia, Haris Abdullah, a student of BS-Economics, blamed these councils for spreading anarchy and the politics of hate on campus. “The same councils were involved in the abduction and torture of students last year and this is not the first time we are witnessing them playing havoc and sadly it won’t be the last time either, as the core agenda of these councils is just to spread hate and divide people on basis of their ethnicity.”

On the other hand, the representatives of the Pashtun Council, while addressing a gathering have dissociated themselves from the recent incidents of violence and have put the total blame on Baluch Council for these incidents. The official pages of the Baluch Council are yet to respond.

Related: Joint Action Committee QAU releases Fact Sheet on Bypass Issue


Blended Learning: A New Model for Pakistani Universities

The concept of blended learning revolves around the combination and amalgamation of both modern and traditional tools and modes of education, whereas the traditional modes of knowledge primarily focus on in-person learning while the modern mode talks about using the technological tool to enhance the learning experience of students, tools such as the distance learning, online learning and using AI integrated tools for the educational development of the society.

Talking about Pakistan, there’s a case that needs to be presented that universities should opt for the model of Blended Learning. Universities can benefit from implementing blended learning by improving student engagement, increasing access to higher education, and enhancing academic outcomes. However, the adoption of blended learning requires strategic planning, faculty training, technological infrastructure, and policy support.

To opt for blended learning in Pakistani universities, the first step is to create a comprehensive plan that aligns with the institution’s vision, mission, and goals. The plan should include an analysis of the current state of education, the potential benefits and challenges of blended learning, and the desired outcomes. The plan should also involve all stakeholders, including students, faculty, administrators, and IT staff.

Faculty training is a critical component of blended learning adoption. Instructors need to learn how to design and deliver online content, facilitate online discussions, provide feedback, and assess student learning. They also need to be familiar with the learning management system (LMS) and other technology tools used in blended learning. Therefore, universities should offer professional development opportunities, such as workshops, seminars, and online courses, to help faculty gain the necessary skills and knowledge.

The technological infrastructure is another essential element of blended learning adoption. Universities must ensure that they have the necessary hardware, software, and networking capabilities to support online learning. The LMS should be robust and user-friendly, allowing students to access course materials, participate in discussions, submit assignments, and receive feedback. Additionally, universities should invest in online resources, such as e-books, journals, and multimedia, to supplement traditional classroom instruction.

Pakistani universities also need to develop policies and guidelines to support blended learning. These policies should address issues such as academic integrity, student privacy, intellectual property, accessibility, and quality assurance. The policies should be consistent with international standards and best practices and should be communicated effectively to all stakeholders.

Finally, Pakistani universities should evaluate the effectiveness of blended learning implementation regularly. Evaluation should include both quantitative and qualitative data, such as student performance, satisfaction, retention, and graduation rates, as well as faculty and student feedback. The evaluation results should inform continuous improvement efforts and help universities refine their blended learning strategies.

In conclusion, blended learning has the potential to transform higher education in Pakistan by improving access, quality, and outcomes. However, adopting blended learning requires careful planning, faculty training, technological infrastructure, policy support, and ongoing evaluation. Pakistani universities should prioritize blended learning adoption and work collaboratively to ensure its successful implementation.

Challenges of Blended learning in Pakistan

Like any new educational approach, it presents its own set of challenges. In Pakistan, a developing country with a large population, the challenges of implementing blended learning are particularly pronounced. This article will explore the challenges of blended learning in Pakistan and discuss potential solutions to these challenges.


One of the primary challenges of blended learning in Pakistan is infrastructure. According to the World Bank, only about 22% of the population in Pakistan has access to the internet, and even fewer have access to high-speed internet. In addition, many schools in Pakistan lack basic infrastructure such as electricity, computers, and reliable internet connectivity. Without the necessary infrastructure, it is difficult to implement blended learning, which requires students to have access to computers, the internet, and other technology.

To address this challenge, the government of Pakistan has launched several initiatives aimed at improving access to technology and infrastructure. For example, the government has launched the “Digital Pakistan” initiative, which aims to provide broadband internet access to all parts of the country. In addition, the government has partnered with private companies to provide laptops and other devices to students at affordable prices.

Teacher Training

Another challenge of blended learning in Pakistan is the need for teacher training. Many teachers in Pakistan lack the necessary skills and training to effectively implement blended learning in their classrooms. They may not know how to use technology to deliver instruction or how to assess student learning in an online environment.

To address this challenge, the government of Pakistan has launched several teacher training programs aimed at improving the digital skills of teachers. For example, the government has launched the “Teacher Training and Development Program,” which provides training to teachers in digital skills such as using learning management systems and creating online content.

Language Barrier

In Pakistan, there are several languages spoken in different regions, and many students may not be proficient in the national language, Urdu. This presents a challenge in implementing blended learning, as much of the online content may be in Urdu or English, which many students may not understand.

To address this challenge, schools and education providers may need to provide online content in multiple languages. In addition, teachers may need to be trained in how to deliver instruction in multiple languages to ensure that all students can understand the content.

Lack of Engagement

Blended learning may not be engaging for all students, particularly those who are used to traditional classroom instruction. Without proper engagement, students may not be motivated to learn, which can impact their academic performance.

To address this challenge, schools and education providers may need to use gamification techniques and other strategies to make online learning more engaging. For example, they may use online quizzes, interactive games, and other digital tools to keep students engaged and motivated.

Assessment and Evaluation

Another challenge of blended learning in Pakistan is assessment and evaluation. It can be difficult to assess student learning in an online environment, particularly if the assessment is based on written work or traditional exams.

To address this challenge, schools and education providers may need to use a combination of online and traditional assessment methods. For example, they may use online quizzes and assignments, as well as traditional exams and written work, to assess student learning.


Blended learning has the potential to transform education in Pakistan, but it also presents several challenges. The government and education providers in Pakistan will need to work together to address these challenges and ensure that all students have access to high-quality education. This will require investments in infrastructure, teacher training, and the development of engaging and effective online content. By addressing these challenges, Pakistan can unlock the full potential of blended learning and provide students with the skills and knowledge they need to succeed in the 21st century.

Related: Does blended learning have a future in Pakistan?


E-Learning: Bridging the Education Divide in Pakistan

E-learning has emerged as a powerful tool to enhance the quality of higher education in recent years. With the rapid advancements in technology, e-learning has become increasingly accessible and effective in providing students with a high-quality education.

One of the key advantages of e-learning is the flexibility it offers. Students can access learning materials and engage in coursework at their own pace and on their own schedule, which allows them to balance their academic pursuits with other commitments such as work or family obligations. Additionally, e-learning allows students to access a wider range of courses and programs than they might have otherwise been able to, as it eliminates the barriers of geography and time zones.

Benefits of E-Learning:

E-learning is a rapidly growing trend in the world of education, offering numerous benefits to learners, educators, and organizations. From its flexibility to its cost-effectiveness, E-learning has transformed the way we learn and teach, providing an array of opportunities that traditional classrooms cannot match. Here are some of the benefits of E-learning:


One of the significant benefits of E-learning is its flexibility. Learners can access course material and complete assignments from anywhere, at any time, and on any device. This allows individuals to learn at their own pace and according to their schedule, which is especially helpful for those with work or family commitments.


E-learning is cost-effective for both learners and organizations. Online courses typically cost less than traditional classroom courses, and there are no additional expenses associated with travel, accommodation, or equipment. Organizations can save on costs related to hiring trainers, renting facilities, and printing materials.


E-learning allows learners to personalize their learning experience based on their individual needs and preferences. Online courses offer a range of multimedia resources, interactive tools, and assessment methods that cater to different learning styles. This enables learners to choose the content and activities that are most relevant and engaging to them.


E-learning makes education accessible to a broader range of individuals, including those who live in remote areas, have mobility or health issues, or are unable to attend traditional classrooms. Online courses are designed to be accessible for people with disabilities, with features such as closed captioning, screen readers, and alternative text.

Enhanced collaboration

E-learning provides opportunities for collaboration and interaction among learners, educators, and experts from around the world. Online forums, chat rooms, and video conferencing allow learners to connect with others and share ideas, experiences, and feedback. This enhances the learning experience and promotes a sense of community and belonging.

How E-Learning can bridge the Educational Divide in Pakistan

Pakistan is a country that is plagued with a wide educational divide, with significant disparities in access to quality education between urban and rural areas, as well as gender-based disparities. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated this divide, as schools across the country have been closed for extended periods of time, depriving millions of children of their right to education. However, e-learning has emerged as a potential solution to bridge this gap and ensure that every child has access to quality education, regardless of their location or gender.

One of the key benefits of e-learning is its ability to reach learners in remote and underserved areas, where traditional schools may not be available or may be of poor quality. According to the Pakistan Education Statistics Report 2019-2020, there are approximately 22.8 million out-of-school children in the country, with the majority of them living in rural areas. E-learning can provide these children with access to quality educational content and resources, such as online courses, videos, interactive games, and quizzes, that they would not otherwise have access to.

Another advantage of e-learning is that it can be personalized to meet the individual needs of learners. Through the use of adaptive learning technologies, e-learning platforms can analyze a learner’s performance and adjust the content and pace of instruction to match their learning style and level of understanding. This personalized approach can help to improve learning outcomes, as learners are more engaged and motivated when the content is tailored to their needs.

E-learning can also help to address gender-based disparities in education. In Pakistan, girls are less likely to enroll in school and are more likely to drop out than boys. According to the Pakistan Education Statistics Report 2019-2020, the net enrollment rate for girls at the primary level is 72%, compared to 76% for boys. E-learning can provide girls with a safe and secure learning environment, where they can access educational content without the risk of discrimination or harassment. Moreover, e-learning can help to overcome traditional barriers to girls’ education, such as the need to travel long distances to school or the need to balance household chores with schoolwork.

Challenges in E-Learning

E-learning in Pakistan is facing several challenges that need to be addressed to make it more effective and accessible.


One of the main challenges that e-learning faces in Pakistan is the lack of infrastructure. Many areas in the country do not have access to the internet, and where it is available, it is often slow and unreliable. This makes it difficult for students and teachers to access online materials, videos, and other resources. To address this challenge, the government needs to invest in the development of the necessary infrastructure to ensure that all students and teachers have access to high-speed internet.

Access to Devices

Another significant challenge is the lack of access to devices such as computers, laptops, and tablets. Many students in Pakistan cannot afford to purchase these devices, which makes it difficult for them to participate in online learning. In addition, many schools do not have the resources to provide these devices to their students. To overcome this challenge, the government and private organizations need to work together to provide students with access to affordable devices.

Quality of Content

The quality of content available online is another significant challenge facing e-learning in Pakistan. Much of the content available is not tailored to the needs of Pakistani students, and may not be culturally appropriate. This makes it difficult for students to engage with the material and may lead to a lack of interest in learning. To overcome this challenge, there needs to be a concerted effort to develop high-quality, relevant content that is tailored to the needs of Pakistani students.

Teacher Training

Teacher training is another significant challenge facing e-learning in Pakistan. Many teachers are not familiar with online teaching methods and do not have the necessary skills to create or deliver online content effectively. To address this challenge, the government needs to provide training and support to teachers to help them develop the necessary skills to deliver online content effectively.

Language Barrier

The language barrier is another significant challenge facing e-learning in Pakistan. Much of the content available online is in English, which may be a barrier for students who are not fluent in the language. To overcome this challenge, there needs to be more content available in Urdu, the national language of Pakistan, and other regional languages.


The cost of e-learning is also a significant challenge facing students in Pakistan. Many families cannot afford to pay for online courses, which makes it difficult for students to participate in e-learning. To address this challenge, the government needs to work with private organizations to develop affordable e-learning solutions that are accessible to all students.


E-learning has the potential to revolutionize the education sector in Pakistan, but there are significant challenges that need to be addressed. Infrastructure, access to devices, quality of content, teacher training, language barrier, and cost are all significant challenges that need to be addressed to make e-learning more effective and accessible. The government needs to work with private organizations to develop a comprehensive strategy to overcome these challenges and ensure that all students have access to high-quality education.

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Student-Teacher Relationship: An Influential Factor in Learning

The role of a teacher in any student’s life can not be emphasized enough, as it is as important as the role usually played by the parents, because in modern times, children get admitted to School in the formative years of their age and they learn basic life skills from their teachers and unconsciously try to imitate them. And in higher education too, although it is not talked about much, mentors play a very crucial role in shaping the future of researchers and academics and help them choose a career path that will unleash the hidden potential of the students. Hence, the Student-Teacher Relationship carries the utmost significance as far as the learning and the growth of the student are concerned, and it should be given the kind of attention it deserves if we are really interested in developing individuals who are equipped with modern tools and critical thinking and knowledge development. It can also be regarded as the most influential factor in the learning journey of any individual.

Talking about Pakistan, the Student-Teacher relationship is often misunderstood and ignored as there is no mechanism in place to bridge the gaps between students and teachers. Often in government and public institutions, students are treated as entities and subjects to be taught only discipline through strict punishments without taking their subjective experience into consideration. We universities and educational institutions just focus on managing the affairs of the students, and instead of making children feel safe, they end up widening the existing gap between teachers and students.

A teacher who takes the time to build a relationship with their students can better understand their strengths and weaknesses. This allows them to tailor their teaching approach to the individual needs of each student, resulting in better academic outcomes. For instance, a teacher who knows that a student struggles with a particular concept can take a different approach to teach the concept, making it more accessible to the student.

A positive student-teacher relationship can also influence a student’s motivation to learn. A teacher who is passionate about their subject and is invested in their student’s success can inspire students to take an interest in the subject. In contrast, a teacher who is disinterested and distant can make students feel disconnected from the subject, resulting in a lack of motivation to learn.

Moreover, a positive student-teacher relationship can have a significant impact on a student’s overall development. Teachers serve as role models for their students, and their behavior and attitude can shape the students’ values, beliefs, and attitudes. A teacher who models positive behaviors and values can help students develop their social skills, such as communication, empathy, and teamwork.

Additionally, a positive student-teacher relationship can help students feel supported and valued. Teachers who show an interest in their students’ personal lives can create a sense of belonging in the classroom, making students feel more connected to the learning environment. This, in turn, can have a positive impact on their mental health and emotional wellbeing.

In contrast, a negative student-teacher relationship can have a detrimental effect on a student’s academic performance and personal development. A teacher who is disengaged, unapproachable, or critical can make students feel unsupported and undervalued. This can result in a lack of motivation to learn, poor academic performance, and negative emotional outcomes such as stress, anxiety, and depression.

Furthermore, a negative student-teacher relationship can lead to disciplinary issues in the classroom. A teacher who does not have a positive relationship with their students may struggle to maintain classroom management and discipline. This can result in disruptive behavior, poor classroom performance, and a breakdown in the learning environment.

Strategies to Build a Positive Student-Teacher Relationship:

Despite the challenges faced by teachers in Pakistan, there are strategies that can be employed to develop positive relationships with their students. These strategies include:

  • Getting to Know Each Student: Teachers should take the time to get to know each student individually. This can be achieved by having one-on-one conversations with students and asking about their interests and hobbies.
  • Encouraging Student Participation: Teachers should create a classroom environment that encourages student participation. This can be achieved by giving students opportunities to express their opinions, ask questions, and share their ideas.
  • Providing Positive Feedback: Teachers should provide positive feedback to their students regularly. This can help to build self-esteem and confidence in their abilities.
  • Being Available: Teachers should make themselves available to their students outside of class. This can be achieved by holding office hours, responding to emails promptly, and being willing to meet with students one-on-one.

In conclusion, the relationship between students and teachers is a crucial factor in student academic success. In Pakistan, teachers face several challenges when it comes to building positive relationships with their students. Despite these challenges, there are strategies that teachers can employ to develop positive relationships with their students. By getting to know each student, encouraging student participation, providing positive feedback, and being available, teachers can create a positive learning environment that fosters academic success. It is essential for teachers in Pakistan to recognize the importance of positive student-teacher relationships and work to develop such relationships with their students.

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