Role of Madrassas in the Educational Development of Pakistan

The history of the institutions of religious education (known as Madrassah) goes as back as the pre-modern era. They were initially established to preserve and disseminate Islamic knowledge, both the Quran and the sayings of the Holy Prophet. But the institution in and of itself was then that in earlier traditional societies and their role was not only confined to giving religious education to the masses. The confinement of Madrassas to only religious education is rather a modern phenomenon as in the pre-renaissance world no such binary of “religious and non-religious” existed because religion was predominantly used to determine and rule people’s lives overall. But with the advent of secularism, the role of religion was restricted to just an individual’s life and its public display was frowned upon, hence we see the role of the Church got limited in the realms of the state’s affairs. All of this was happening in the west while colonialism was at its very peak and the colonizers found them in a very peculiar position as they witness, that unlike in the west, people in the East, especially in the sub-continent where there weren’t any refined boundaries between religious and modern education unlike in the west. That’s when the Britishers decided to introduce a separate and parallel system of education, wholly focusing on modern needs and wants. New educational institutions were built and the role of religious seminaries was just limited to providing religious education. And the same model was opted for after the partition. And since the partition, the role of Madrassas in the educational development of Pakistan is highly debated.

Role of Madrassas in the Educational Development

Madrassas, or Islamic seminaries, have a long history in Pakistan and have played a significant role in shaping the country’s religious and cultural landscape. However, the role of Madrassas in the educational development of Pakistan has been a subject of debate and controversy.

On one hand, some argue that madrassas have provided access to education for millions of students, particularly in rural areas where government schools are often scarce. These schools provide free education, room, and board, and often attract low-income families who cannot afford the fees charged by private schools.

Moreover, madrassas have also played a crucial role in promoting Islamic education and preserving the country’s cultural and religious traditions. Many students attend madrassas to learn the Quran and the principles of Islam, and these institutions have helped produce generations of Islamic scholars and leaders.

However, critics argue that madrassas have contributed to the spread of religious extremism and intolerance in Pakistan. Some madrassas have been accused of promoting a narrow and intolerant version of Islam that does not tolerate other religions or sects. Additionally, some of these schools have been linked to terrorism and militancy, and have been accused of providing a breeding ground for radicalized youth.

Despite these concerns, madrassas remain an integral part of Pakistan’s education system. According to some estimates, there are over 30,000 madrassas in the country, with an estimated two million students enrolled. Many of these institutions receive funding from religious organizations and wealthy donors, while others rely on government support.

The government has also attempted to regulate the madrassa system to address some of the concerns around religious extremism and terrorism. In 2002, the government introduced the Madrassah Education Board to register and monitor the activities of madrassas across the country. The board was later renamed the Wafaqul Madaris Al-Arabia, and is now the largest regulatory body for madrassas in Pakistan.

However, critics argue that the regulatory framework is inadequate and has not been effective in addressing the concerns around religious extremism and terrorism. Many madrassas continue to operate outside the purview of government regulation, and there are concerns about the quality of education and the curriculum taught in these schools.

Moreover, the lack of government support for the madrassa system has also been a major issue. While the government has invested heavily in the public education system, with a focus on secular subjects, it has not provided similar support for Islamic education. As a result, many madrassas lack the resources and facilities needed to provide quality education.

There have been some efforts to address these issues in recent years. The government has introduced reforms to the madrassa system, including a focus on teaching modern subjects such as science, math, and English. Some madrassas have also started to offer vocational training programs to help students acquire practical skills and improve their employability.

Additionally, there have been efforts to promote greater collaboration between madrassas and mainstream educational institutions. In 2019, the government launched the “Madrassah Connect” program, which aims to connect madrassas with public and private schools to promote the exchange of ideas and resources.


In conclusion, while the role of madrassas in the educational development of Pakistan is very significant, their role has been a subject of controversy and debate. While these institutions have provided access to education for millions of students and have helped preserve the country’s cultural and religious traditions, concerns around religious extremism and terrorism have also been raised. The government’s attempts to regulate and reform the madrassa system have been met with mixed success, and there is a need for greater investment and support for Islamic education in the country.

Related: UO vying to create harmony between Madrasa & university students
Mohammad Saad

By Muhammad Saad

The writer is an MPhil Scholar, perusing his Masters in Political Science from GCU, Lahore. He tweets @hafizsaadriaz

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